About the Report
The State of Economic Inclusion Report 2021 sheds light on one of the most intractable challenges faced by development policy makers and practitioners: transforming the economic lives of the world’s poorest and most vulnerable people.
The report provides a global assessment on the state of economic inclusion programs that reach the extreme poor and vulnerable. Drawing on experiences from over 75 countries, the report considers the feasibility of bringing economic inclusion and graduation programs to scale. This report establishes a baseline for global economic inclusion programs, reviews the evolving landscape of government and nongovernment programs, and explores the potential for scale.
This report is a product of a unique collaboration within the World Bank’s Social Protection and Jobs Global Practice and produced under the Partnership for Economic Inclusion – a multi-stakeholder partnership focused on scale-up of economic inclusion and graduation programs.
Explore the Content
Economic Inclusion: A Framework
Exploring high expectations for economic inclusion programs given strong evidence and increasing demand due to COVID-19 balanced by skepticism in part owing to a lack of common language, program typologies, or framework for action.
Moving to Scale: Political Realities and Entry Points
Scale-up of economic inclusion programs requires careful coordination across government at different levels and project design is influenced by both political economy considerations and by the type of program, or entry point, they are built upon, whether social safety net, livelihood and jobs, or financial inclusion programs.
A Surge in Economic Inclusion
Economic inclusion programs are under way in 75 countries and data from 219 programs, collected by PEI between November 2019 and May 2020, is explored in detail, including the number and type of components, partnership features, and details on program participants.
Moving to Scale through
Government-led programs have a strong interest in scaling up, a process of growth that can be achieved across five different dimensions: coverage, functional expansion, policy and strategy formulation, organizational reform, and operational planning.
An Assessment of Program Impacts
An evidence review of 80 quantitative and qualitative evaluations of economic inclusion programs in 37 countries, which reveals a promising evidence base for economic inclusion programs and identifies some evidence gaps.
Assessing the Cost of Economic
One of the first multi-country cost disaggregation for government- and nongovernment-led economic inclusion programs globally. This costing analysis is a critical step toward understanding cost-optimization and cost effectiveness within economic inclusion programs.
View Annex for an overview of the survey methodology, a review of program impact, survey methodology and analysis of economic inclusion program costing, a mapping of economic inclusion programs globally, and a synopsis of components of economic inclusion programs.
Case Study 1: Productive Inclusion Measures and Adaptive Social Protection in the Sahel
Case Study 2: The State of Bihar’s Approach to Economic Inclusion: JEEViKA and the SJY Program
Case Study 3: Adapting BRAC’s Graduation Program to the Changing Poverty Context in Bangladesh
Case Study 4: Haku Wiñay: An Economic Inclusion Program in Peru
Ten key findings