Displacement

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  • Labor market integration of refugees and internally displaced persons: The behavioral and socio-emotional side

    Schuettler, Kirsten

    ABSTRACT

    Blog post on behavioral, social and emotional side of refugee integration into the labor market that is often overlooked

    CITATION

    Schuettler, Kirsten. 2021. Labor market integration of refugees and internally displaced persons: The behavioral and socio-emotional side. World Bank Blogs.

    Blogs
    ORGANIZATION
    World Bank
  • The Psychosocial Value of Employment

    Hussam, Reshmaan, Erin M. Kelley, Gregory Lane, and Fatima Zahra

    ABSTRACT

    In settings where employment opportunities are scarce, the inability to work may generate psychosocial harm. This paper presents a causal estimate of the psychosocial value of employment in the Rohingya refugee camps of Bangladesh. We engage 745 individuals in a field experiment with three arms: (1) a control arm, (2) a weekly cash arm, and (3) a gainful employment arm, in which work is offered and individuals are paid weekly the approximate equivalent of that in the cash arm. We find that employment confers significant psychosocial benefits beyond the impacts of cash alone, with effects concentrated among males. The cash arm does not improve psychosocial wellbeing, despite the provision of cash at a weekly amount that is more than twice the amount held by recipients in savings at baseline. Consistent with these findings, we find that 66% of those in our work treatment are willing to forego cash payments to instead work for free. Our results have implications for social protection policies for the unemployed in low income countries and refugee populations globally.

    CITATION

    Hussam, Reshmaan, Erin M. Kelley, Gregory Lane, and Fatima Zahra. "The Psychosocial Value of Employment." Working Paper, May 2021

  • The Graduation Program Effects on Armed-Conflict Victims: Results Evaluation from Colombia

    León-Jurado, Viviana and Jorge Higinio Maldonado

    ABSTRACT

    As part of the Colombian government’s strategy to support the armed-conflict victims, a Graduation Program called “Transformando Mi Futuro” (Transforming my future) was implemented. Unlike other graduation programs, this one targets the urban population and has no assets transfers. To evaluate this program, a Results Evaluation (Before/After) approach was performed using the information collected before and after implementing the program. The main results show positive changes in well-being and a reduction in the gap between the actual perception of well-being and the expectations for two and five years, and positive changes in labor income and savings. These results suggest that the program contributed to improving the living conditions of participating households. However, heterogeneity analysis shows that impacts are differentiated according initial status of participants. This exercise is part of the set of evaluations carried out within the Platform for Evaluation and Learning of the Graduation Program in Latin America (www.plataformagraduacionla.info).

    CITATION

    León-Jurado, Viviana and Jorge Higinio Maldonado. 2021. The Graduation Program Effects on Armed-Conflict Victims: Results Evaluation from Colombia . Documento CEDE No. 23.

  • Social cohesion and stability between Syrian refugees and host communities

    ODI (Overseas Development Institute)

    ABSTRACT

    A decade since the start of the Syrian crisis, nearly all Syrian refugee families in Lebanon live in poverty and struggle to meet their basic needs. As part of their response, the World Food Programme (WFP) provides multi-purpose cash (MPC) assistance to 23,000 Syrian refugee households in Lebanon, supporting some of the most vulnerable refugees in meeting their basic needs. Conducted by the Overseas Development Institute in partnership with the Cash Monitoring, Evaluation, Accountability and Learning Organisational Network (CAMEALEON). Hosting the largest per capita refugee population in the world, Lebanon has been coping with nine years of refugee influxes and prolonged displacement which has invariably impacted the country’s social fabric. In 2018 and 2019, CAMEALEON partnered with the Overseas Development Institute to examine the role of WFP MPC in shaping relations, social cohesion and stability among Syrian refugees as well as between Syrian refugees and their host communities in Lebanon. Drawing on the experiences and perceptions of 270 respondents at three sites in Lebanon’s Bekaa Valley, this research is based on in-depth interviews and focus group discussions to understand whether MPC played a role in influencing opportunities for interactions; sources of solidarity, support and tension; and the experience and perceptions of discrimination, safety and security.

    CITATION

    ODI (Overseas Development Institute). 2010.

    Reports
    ORGANIZATION
    Overseas Development Institute
  • No Household Left Behind: Afghanistan Targeting the Ultra Poor Impact Evaluation.

    Guadalupe Bedoya, Aidan Coville, Johannes Haushofer, Mohammad Isaqzadeh, and Jeremy Shapiro

    ABSTRACT

    The share of people living in extreme poverty fell from 36 percent in 1990 to 10 percent in 2015 but has continued to increase in many fragile and conflict-affected areas where half of the extreme poor are expected to reside by 2030. These areas are also where the least evidence exists on how to tackle poverty. This paper investigates whether the Targeting the Ultra Poor program can lift households out of poverty in a fragile context: Afghanistan. In 80 villages in Balkh province, 1,219 of the poorest households were randomly assigned to a treatment or control group. Women in treatment households received a one-off “bigpush” package, including a transfer of livestock assets, cash consumption stipend, skills training, and coaching. One year after the program ended—two years after assets were transferred—significant and large impacts are found across all the primary pre-specified outcomes: consumption, assets, psychological well-being, total time spent working, financial inclusion, and women’s empowerment. Per capita consumption increases by 30 percent (USD 24 purchasing power parity, USD 7 nominal per month) with respect to the control group, and the share of households below the national poverty line decreases from 82 percent in the control group to 62 percent in the treatment group. Using modest assumptions about consumption impacts, the intervention has an estimated internal rate of return of 26 percent, excluding non-monetized improvements in psychological well-being, women’s empowerment, and children’s health and education. These findings suggest that “big-push” interventions can dramatically reduce poverty in fragile and conflict-affected regions.

    CITATION

    Bedoya, Guadalupe, Aidan Coville, Johannes Haushofer, Mohammad Isaqzadeh, and Jeremy Shapiro. 2019. “No Household Left Behind: Afghanistan Targeting the Ultra Poor Impact Evaluation.” Policy Research Working Paper 8877, World Bank, Washington, DC.

    Working Papers
    ORGANIZATION
    World Bank
  • The impact of refugee presence on host populations in Tanzania: A desk review

    Ogude,Helidah Refiloe Atieno

    ABSTRACT

    This desk review focusses on the impact of refugee presence on Tanzanian populations. It was conducted against the backdrop of the new global commitments made to protecting refugees and better supporting the countries and communities that host them. The review covers a brief history of refugee policy and practice in Tanzania, an overview of some mediating factors that influenced impacts, including pre-existing livelihood strategies in various refugee-hosting districts and immediate policy responses to the refugee influx, such as camp locations. The section that follows then covers areas of research that have been more comprehensively analyzed: (1) labor market outcomes, with some studies placing more emphasis on the gendered dynamics, as well as the distinct impact on causal labor; (2) the local economy and food prices; (3) food security and prices in terms of the humanitarian impact; (4) local infrastructure and services; (5) environmental impacts; (6) security and social cohesion; and (7) long-run welfare impacts. The publication concludes with lessons learned and policy and practice options and a brief taxonomy of areas for possible further research. It is hoped that the evidence and analysis presented here will inform policy responses for the various governments across the world faced with significant refugee and internally displaced persons (IDP) populations, as well as the humanitarian and development actors involved in supporting them.

    CITATION

    Ogude,Helidah Refiloe Atieno.2018. The impact of refugee presence on host populations in Tanzania: A desk review (English). Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group.

    Reports
    ORGANIZATION
    World Bank, UNHCR
  • Refugees and host communities in the Rwandan labour market

    Bilgili, Özge and Craig Loschmann

    ABSTRACT

    This article highlights findings from household surveys of Congolese refugees in three of the largest refugee camps in Rwanda (Gihembe, Kiziba and Kigeme) and of locals living nearby. The authors find that although Congolese refugees officially have the right to work, in reality their experiences in the local labor market differ considerably from that of local Rwandans. Specifically: • Refugees are significantly less likely to be employed than locals. Major obstacles to employment include local employers’ lack of knowledge of refugees’ right to work, and high cost of transportation to local commercial hubs. These problems might be addressed by: (a) issuing identity documents to refugees that local employers recognize and accept; (b) an information campaign targeting employers to ensure that refugees’ legal rights are clear to all; and (c) providing cheaper transportation to make it viable for refugees to seek employment beyond immediate camp areas. • Inside the camps, international organizations and NGOs employ many refugees, raising the question of refugees’ dependency on humanitarian organizations beyond basic protection and needs. Refugees with professions and qualifications are in a more advantageous position than those with fewer skills. • Within host communities there is a shift away from subsistence agricultural activities. Working-age individuals within 10km of a camp are more likely to be engaged in wage employment than in farming or livestock production. Females living near a camp are more likely to be self-employed than those residing further away. It tends to be the financially better-off who engage commercially with refugees and who presumably benefit. Locals’ labor market activities do not seem to be negatively affected by refugees; rather, the more dynamic local economy provided increased opportunities for wage-earning jobs and self-employment. There was no evidence of either increased competition in the labor market or resentment from local people due to the presence of refugees. The authors conclude that granting refugees the right to work is not sufficient to promote sustainable self-reliance, and a more comprehensive strategy is needed incorporating standardized identity documents for refugees, information provision for local employers, and better transportation provision outside the camps.

    CITATION

    Bilgili, Özge and Craig Loschmann. 2018. Refugees and host communities in the Rwandan labour market. Forced Migration Review 58. pp. 22-23.

  • A Guide to Market-Based Lveilhood Interventions for Refugees

    Nutz, Nadja

    ABSTRACT

    There is no one-size-fits-all approach to refugee livelihoods. Interventions must be adapted to the local context. Factors such as whether refugees reside among the local population or stay in camps, whether they live in urban centres or rural ar- eas, fundamentally change the way livelihood interventions should be designed. A joint effort by UNHCR and ILO, this guide provides a framework for assessment to help practitioners determine the right combination of interventions to arrive at a holistic livelihoods approach that is well adapted to the local context and labour market. In doing so, it applies the “Making Markets Work for the Poor” approach (also known as M4P or market systems development) to the specific context of refugees. M4P provides a useful framework for understanding market systems in which refugees can make a living and offers guidance for identifying interventions aimed at strengthening these systems. We hope this guide provides a programmatic example of how to build the nexus between humanitarian and development actions, and paves the way for more marketoriented approaches to refugee livelihood programmes which ultimately will contribute to the development of the comprehensive refugee response approach, the global compact for refugees, and the achievement of UN Sustainable Development Goal 8 on decent work and economic growth.

    CITATION

    Nutz, Nadja. 2017. A Guide to Market-Based Lveilhood Interventions for Refugees. Geneva: International Labour Organization.

    Operational Guides
    ORGANIZATION
    UNHCR, ILO
  • Graduation in an Urban Refugee Context: A Technical Guide

    Louisa Lippi and Alexi Taylor-Grosman

    ABSTRACT

    “Graduation in an Urban Refugee Context: A Technical Guide” has been prepared to offer guidance to organizations planning to implement the Graduation Approach in an urban context for refugees and their host communities. The document can be used to support the design and implementation of Graduation programs as part of a comprehensive economic inclusion strategy for refugees and their host communities in urban and peri-urban areas. This Technical Guide is to be used by multi-functional teams who are responsible for determining if the Graduation Approach can form an appropriate part of an inclusive livelihoods strategy to achieve protection and solutions goals for refugees in urban contexts. Specifically, the Technical Guide aims to provide guidance on considerations that implementing agencies will need to take into account when determining if the Graduation Approach is suitable for their context. The Technical Guide is intended as a resource to inform the adoption of the Graduation Approach for refugees in an urban context by a variety of stakeholders, including governments, development actors, NGOs, microfinance institutions, social protection programs, and other multilateral and bilateral agencies.

    CITATION

    Lippi, Louisa., Alexi Taylor-Grosman. 2017. Graduation in an Urban Refugee Context: A Technical Guide . New York: Trickle Up.

    Operational Guides
    ORGANIZATION
    Trickle Up, UNHCR
  • Promoting Livelihoods and Self-reliance: Operational Guidance on Refugee Protection and Solutions in Urban Areas

    UNHCR (The UN Refugee Agency)

    ABSTRACT

    This operational guidance to livelihood programming is aimed primarily at UNHCR Field Operations, starting with representatives and senior managers in field operations; at Multi-Functional Teams (MFT) that include Protection, Programme, Community Services, Field and Livelihoods Officers, where applicable; and at government counterparts and operational and implementing partners, including potential new partners that may include microfinance institutions, the private sector, foundations and academic institutions. Regional representations and decision-makers in headquarters are also addressed. These guidelines address all urban persons of concern (PoC) currently under UNHCR’s mandated and designated responsibility, including refugees, asylum seekers, internally displaced persons (IDP), stateless persons and returnees. This operational guidance is based on lessons learnt and good practices gathered across urban operations since 2008.

    CITATION

    UNHCR (The UN Refugee Agency). 2011. Promoting Livelihoods and Self-reliance: Operational Guidance on Refugee Protection and Solutions in Urban Areas. Geneva: UNHCR.

    Operational Guides
    ORGANIZATION
    UNHCR