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  • Operational Considerations for Urban Economic Inclusion Programming

    Puja Vasudeva Dutta, Timothy Clay, and Jorge Avalos

    ABSTRACT

    This note is one of two designed to serve as a resource for policy makers and practitioners aiming to introduce or scale up economic inclusion programs in urban and peri-urban areas. The first note explores the potential of economic inclusion programs to promote the social and economic inclusion of the urban poor and vulnerable. It lays out a framework for such programming based on the current landscape and evidence and points to the central role economic inclusion programs can play in meeting the urban jobs challenge, facilitating a Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) recovery, and building inclusive cities. This note addresses the question of how to operationalize these programs. It shows that a rethink is needed about the ways in which programs are designed and delivered to fit the needs and lifestyles of the urban poor. The emerging experience from a growing pipeline yields some important operational insights, but several questions remain to be answered in coming years, as programs continue to evolve and customize to the urban context.

    CITATION

    Dutta, Puja Vasudeva; Clay, Timothy Joseph Peter; Avalos, Jorge Eduardo. 2022. Operational Considerations for Urban Economic Inclusion Programming. PEI In Practice. Washington, DC: World Bank.

    Reports
    ORGANIZATION
    World Bank, Partnership for Economic Inclusion
  • Tackling psychosocial and capital constraints to alleviate poverty

    Thomas Bossuroy, Markus Goldstein, Bassirou Karimou, Dean Karlan, Harounan Kazianga, William Parienté, Patrick Premand, Catherine C. Thomas, Christopher Udry, Julia Vaillant & Kelsey A. Wright

    ABSTRACT

    Many policies attempt to help extremely poor households build sustainable sources of income. Although economic interventions have predominated historically, psychosocial support has attracted substantial interest, particularly for its potential cost-effectiveness. Recent evidence has shown that multi-faceted ‘graduation’ programmes can succeed in generating sustained changes. Here we show that a multi-faceted intervention can open pathways out of extreme poverty by relaxing capital and psychosocial constraints. We conducted a four-arm randomized evaluation among extremely poor female beneficiaries already enrolled in a national cash transfer government programme in Niger. The three treatment arms included group savings promotion, coaching and entrepreneurship training, and then added either a lump-sum cash grant, psychosocial interventions, or both the cash grant and psychosocial interventions. All three arms generated positive effects on economic outcomes and psychosocial well-being, but there were notable differences in the pathways and the timing of effects. Overall, the arms with psychosocial interventions were the most cost-effective, highlighting the value of including well-designed psychosocial components in government-led multi-faceted interventions for the extreme poor.

    CITATION

    Bossuroy, T., Goldstein, M., Karimou, B. et al. Tackling psychosocial and capital constraints to alleviate poverty. Nature (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-04647-8

    Journal Articles
  • Unpacking a Multi-Faceted Program to Build Sustainable Income for the Very Poor

    Abhijit Banerjee, Dean Karlan, Robert Osei, Hannah Trachtman, Christopher Udry

    ABSTRACT

    A multi-faceted program comprising a grant of productive assets, training, unconditional cash transfers, coaching, and savings has been found to build sustainable income for those in extreme poverty. We focus on two important questions: whether a mere grant of productive assets would generate similar impacts (it does not), and whether access to a savings account with a deposit collection service would generate similar impacts (it does, but they are short-lived).

    CITATION

    Banerjee, Abhijit V., Dean Karlan, Robert Darko Osei, Hannah Trachtman and Christopher Udry. 2022. Unpacking a Multi-Faceted Program to Build Sustainable Income for the Very Poor. Journal of Development Economics, 155.

    Journal Articles
  • Leveraging Behavioral Science to Increase the Impact of Economic Inclusion Programming

    Saugato Datta, Mukta Joshi, Catherine MacLeod,
    and Michele Zini

    ABSTRACT

    Behavioral science-the study of how humans make decisions and take actions—can provide insight into a host of issues that impact the effectiveness of programs that rely on people acting in certain ways. Behavioral science can be utilized to understand how living in poverty, with chronically scarce resources, affects people's decisions and actions. This can be particularly effective when combined with other program components in economic inclusion programs, which offer a bundle of coordinated, multidimensional interventions that support individuals, households, and communities in their efforts to increase their incomes and assets. By incorporating an understanding of behavioral science into economic inclusion programming, governments and nongovernment organizations seeking to bring millions out of poverty with limited resources can ensure that their programs are designed to account for human behavior.

    CITATION

    Datta, Saugato; Joshi, Mukta; MacLeod, Catherine; Zini, Michele Davide. 2022. Leveraging Behavioral Science to Increase the Impact of Economic Inclusion Programming. Washington, DC: World Bank.

    Reports
    ORGANIZATION
    World Bank, Partnership for Economic Inclusion
  • Pathways out of Extreme Poverty Tackling Psychosocial and Capital Constraints with a Multi-faceted Social Protection Program in Niger

    Thomas Bossuroy, Markus Goldstein, Dean Karlan, Harounan Kazianga, William Parienté, Patrick Premand, Catherine Thomas, Christopher Udry, Julia Vaillant, and Kelsey Wright

    ABSTRACT

    This paper analyzes a four-arm randomized evaluation of a multi-faceted economic inclusion intervention delivered by the Government of Niger to female beneficiaries of a national cash transfer program. All three treatment arms include a core package of group savings promotion, coaching, and entrepreneurship training, in addition to the regular cash transfers from the national program. The first variant also includes a lump-sum cash grant and is similar to a traditional graduation intervention (“capital” package). The second variant substitutes the cash grant with psychosocial interventions (“psychosocial” package). The third variant includes the cash grant and the psychosocial interventions (“full” package). The control group only receives the regular cash transfers from the national program. All three treatments generate large impacts on consumption and food security six and 18 months post-intervention. They increase participation and profits in women-led off-farm business and livestock activities, as well as improve various dimensions of psychosocial well-being. The impacts tend to be larger in the full treatment, followed by the capital and psychosocial treatments. Consumption impacts up to 18 months after the intervention already exceed costs in the psychosocial package (the benefit-cost ratio for the psychosocial package is 126 percent; full package, 95 percent; and capital package, 58 percent). These results highlight the value of addressing psychosocial constraints as well as capital constraints in government-implemented poverty reduction programs.

    CITATION

    Bossuroy, T., Markus Goldstein, Dean Karlan, Harounan Kazianga, William Parienté, Patrick Premand, Catherine Thomas, Christopher Udry, Julia Vaillant, Kelsey Wright. 2021. "Pathways Out of Extreme Poverty : Tackling Psychosocial and Capital Constraints with a Multi-faceted Social Protection Program in Niger." Policy Research Working Paper;No. 9562. World Bank, Washington, DC

  • The State of Economic Inclusion Report 2021 : The Potential to Scale

    Colin Andrews, Aude de Montesquiou, Ines Arevalo Sanchez, Puja Vasudeva Dutta, Boban Varghese Paul, Sadna Samaranayake, Janet Heisey, Timothy Clay, and Sarang Chaudhary

    ABSTRACT

    The State of Economic Inclusion Report 2021 sheds light on one of the most intractable challenges faced by development policy makers and practitioners: transforming the economic lives of the world’s poorest and most vulnerable people. Economic inclusion programs are a bundle of coordinated, multidimensional interventions that support individuals, households, and communities so they can raise their incomes and build their assets. Programs targeting the extreme poor and vulnerable groups are now under way in 75 countries. This report presents data and evidence from 219 of these programs, which are reaching over 90 million beneficiaries. Governments now lead the scale-up of economic inclusion interventions, often building on pre-existing national programs such as safety nets, livelihoods and jobs, and financial inclusion, and 93 percent of the total beneficiaries are covered by government programs. The report offers four important contributions: • A detailed analysis of the nature of these programs, the people living in extreme poverty and vulnerability who they support, and the organizational challenges and opportunities inherent in designing and leading them. • An evidence review of 80 quantitative and qualitative evaluations of economic inclusion programs in 37 countries. • The first multicountry costing study including both government-led and other economic inclusion programs, indicating that programs show potential for cost efficiencies when integrated into national systems. • Four detailed case studies featuring programs underway in Bangladesh, India, Peru, and the Sahel, which highlight the programmatic and institutional adaptations required to scale in quite diverse contexts. Data from the report are available on the PEI Data Portal (http://www.peiglobal.org) where users can explore and submit data to build on this baseline.

    CITATION

    Andrews, Colin, Aude de Montesquiou, Ines Arevalo Sanchez, Puja Vasudeva Dutta, Boban Varghese Paul, Sadna Samaranayake, Janet Heisey, Timothy Clay, and Sarang Chaudhary. 2021. The State of Economic Inclusion Report 2021 : The Potential to Scale. Washington, DC: World Bank.

    Reports
    ORGANIZATION
    World Bank, Partnership for Economic Inclusion
  • Case Study 2: Designing linked Humanitarian Cash and Social Protection interventions in response to COVID-19

    Grand Bargain Cash Workstream Sub-Group

    ABSTRACT

    To share learning from the COVID-19 pandemic, the Grand Bargain Cash Workstream Sub-Group on Linking Humanitarian Cash (HC) and Social Protection (SP) has drawn up a series of case studies that offer practical examples of how actors in a range of different contexts have aligned or linked elements of existing and/or nascent humanitarian and social protection approaches in cash-based responses to the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic. Using concepts that have been captured in a combination of different theoretical frameworks, the case studies bring to life examples that show how a variety of stakeholders have linked different elements of HC and SP in COVID-19 responses and the successes and challenges faced in doing so. The case studies are organised around a combination of the humanitarian project cycle and the building blocks of the delivery chain. Learnings presented in this note have been drawn from the experience of sub group member agencies in several different countries. Case Study 2 looks at Intervention design. Vulnerability and poverty assessments, informing eligibility/targeting design; transfer value and frequency; and conditionality.

    CITATION

    Grand Bargain Cash Workstream Sub-Group 2021 (b). Case Study 2: Designing linked Humanitarian Cash and Social Protection interventions in response to COVID-19

  • Graduation Programs in Refugee and Conflict-Affected Settings​

    Strohm, Rachel

    ABSTRACT

    Powerpoint slides providing an overview of evidence on graduation programs in refugee and conflict-affected settings

    CITATION

    Strohm, Rachel 2021. Graduation Programs in Refugee and Conflict-Affected Settings​. PowerPoint Slides. Innovations for Poverty Action

    Multi-media Content
    ORGANIZATION
    Innovations for Poverty Action
  • Why We Need a Multisectoral Approach to End Extreme Poverty

    Lindsay Coates

    ABSTRACT

    The international community cannot work in silos and expect to end extreme poverty. Poverty is multidimensional. The most effective and powerful interventions that empower people to escape the poverty trap address the lives of people living in poverty holistically. A truly holistic approach leverages stakeholders from all parts of society collaborating to uplift people from the most marginalized communities. This is a matter of social justice, not of charity. And, this is urgent. By the end of 2021, COVID-19 will have forced approximately 150 million more people into extreme poverty. Despite dire circumstances, we can still make meaningful progress on poverty eradication. Before the pandemic struck, global extreme poverty was consistently falling. From 2011 to 2019 alone, it fell from 1.1 billion people to 691 million.

    CITATION

    Coates, L., 2021. "Why We Need a Multisectoral Approach to End Extreme Poverty." [online] Available at: <https://bracultrapoorgraduation.medium.com/why-we-need-a-multisectoral-…;

    Blogs
    ORGANIZATION
    BRAC
  • Poverty Alleviation and Women's Empowerment When Women Use Tech

    Elaine Chang

    ABSTRACT

    It was with that in mind that Zita Akwero, Village Enterprise’s Uganda Regional Manager, highlighted (during a recent webinar to recognize International Women’s Day) how TaroWorks’ offline mobile field service app, Salesforce.com and the data they collect and analyze are helping empower both the women hired by Village Enterprise to act as business mentors and women in the poverty alleviation program who the mentors train and advise. Zita exemplifies how women can advance by acquiring technology and data skills, having started out as a business mentor herself who learned how to successfully use Salesforce dashboards to plan her daily tasks. Now, she’s managing teams of business mentors for an entire region and is enabling them to use technology and data.

    CITATION

    Chang, E., 2021. "Poverty Alleviation and Women's Empowerment When Women Use Tech." [online] TaroWorks. Available at: <https://taroworks.org/poverty-alleviation-and-womens-empowerment/?deliv…;.

    Blogs
    ORGANIZATION
    Village Enterprise